Archives November 2023

The Power of the TUC: The General Strike of 1926 and its Impact

The TUC and the General Strike of 1926

The General Strike of 1926 showed that the TUC could be a powerful organisation. In the aftermath, local councils of action grew in strength and authority.

Builders, printers, dockers and iron, steel and metal workers all went on strike. After a week TUC leaders decided to accept Herbert Samuel’s proposals and the strike was called off.

What happened?

The TUC called a general strike on 3 May 1926 after negotiations with the coal miners failed. It limited participation to railwaymen, transport workers, printers and dockers, but 1.7 million workers responded by going out especially in transport. Roads ground to a halt, heavy industry was paralysed and newspapers stopped printing.

Local councils of action grew in size and power across the country as workers organised transport, entertainment and food distribution. There were clashes with police in Plymouth where tram workers tried to block a team of blacklegs. In East Fife a workers defence militia was set up. Co-operative printers stepped in to help and produced a number of high quality strike bulletins, one of which is preserved here.

By May 11 the strike was growing stronger and the TUC panicked. They offered a sell-out, an organisation to maintain supplies with the army and volunteers (middle class students) and no guarantees of protection from victimisation in return for a call off the strike.

The TUC’s attitude

The TUC, committed as it was to constitutional modes of action, feared that the General Strike would go too far and become anarchic. It therefore tried to keep control by imposing a tame editorial policy on its Councils of Action. The possession of a newsletter produced by one of the Councils was a criminal offence carrying a two or three month prison sentence.

The TUC also feared the rise of independent rank and file organisations which might challenge its authority. To combat this it imposed a rule that no Council of Action could be organised without its approval.

These rules prevented the formation of independent organisations and stifled coordination between unions. The TUC hoped to change this in 1928 when it wrote to employers’ organisations asking them to discuss joint discussions with the aim of removing causes of disputes and establishing a dispute resolution mechanism. Alfred Mond and 21 other employers, representing mainly newer industries, responded favourably to this proposal.

The government’s preparation

As the strike wore on the Prime Minister became increasingly worried. His disquiet was intensified by the publication of articles supporting the strike and the refusal of the printers of the Daily Mail to print a leading article denouncing the General StrikeLink opens in a new window. Despite a weak resolution from the MFGB calling for the General Council’s report to be referred back to the union executives conference the TUC leadership refused.

Nonetheless they continued to make preparations for a settlement. Despite having no real intention of going into negotiations they were prepared to sacrifice the rights of the working class to maintain the essential services. Moreover they hoped that the success of the strike would discourage other workers from taking action. The TUC’s attitude was not the major cause of the failure of the strike but it was a serious factor. By the time Samuel called it off a week into an unequal struggle with the government the temper of the workers was bitter.

The strike’s success

Despite the TUC’s fears that workers would drift back to work, the ranks of the striking workers continued to grow. Locally they organised themselves into Councils of Action which controlled roads, transport and entertainment. They also produced high-quality strike bulletins such as the Gloucester Strike Bulletin. Up and down the country there were clashes with state forces – for example, when the Flying Scotsman was derailed at Cramlington.

Negotiations had broken down and the government, aware that the situation was escalating, began to implement emergency measures. It used the Emergency Powers Act to maintain supplies and employed armed forces backed by volunteers to keep basic services running. Meanwhile the TUC pushed for a compromise, but Baldwin refused to agree.

Return to the home screen

The Possibility of a General Strike in America

Is There a General Strike in America?

As the federal government shutdown continues, union leaders have begun calling for a general strike. Whether or not such a strike is possible, however, depends on many factors.

One of the biggest is the political climate. Another is the current high level of public support for unions. But, a look at labor history shows that the effectiveness of strikes has varied widely across time and place.

The Origins of the Modern Strike

As the government shutdown enters its fourth week and hundreds of thousands of workers are out of their jobs, the word strike seems to be on everyone’s lips. Union leaders and activists are discussing the possibility of a general strike, but there has not been one in America since 1946.

A general strike is “a large-scale worker uprising organized by a trade union to address an economic issue,” according to historian Mark Singer. Unlike run-of-the-mill work stoppages or even more militant wildcat strikes, a general strike is typically not called—rather, it spreads from one group of workers to another.

The general strikes of the past—which ranged from a single day’s protest by New York journeymen tailors to a nine-week action by Houston janitors—showcased the power of solidarity among workers. But a general strike is also incredibly dangerous to the people in power. If successful, it lays bare the structural and legal inequalities that the 1% seeks to protect.

The Oakland General Strike

The last general strike in America took place in Oakland in December of 1946, a massive “work holiday” that shut down the entire city for 54 hours. It was the last of the mass strikes that swept the country following World War II and ushered in a new era of deindustrialization and unemployment that continues to this day.

The strike started when 400 retail clerks from Hastings and Kahn department stores walked off their jobs to protest the firing of one of their number for union activities. The strike quickly grew as more and more workers joined the rank and file. Eventually 142 local labor councils affiliated with the Alameda County AFL declared a work holiday and 142 companies halted operations in the city.

The streets were a ghost town. Picket lines swelled as the city’s street cars and Key System ferries stopped operating. The only way that capitalist businesses could get their business back was to break the strike and bring in scabs. This they did by hiring police to beat and arrest strikers.

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

In the summer of 1877, railroad workers played a role in the first general strike since the Civil War. The upheaval began in Martinsburg, West Virginia when workers for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad walked out of work in protest of their employers slashing their pay by 10 percent. In the following days workers began to walk out of their jobs and act in solidarity with each other on significant rail routes across the country.

The resulting actions resembled more of a mob uprising or socialist revolution than the squabbles between union and management that typically marked most strikes. However, unlike the Bolsheviks or the Paris Commune of 1871, there was no central leadership to direct and coordinate these actions; most were spontaneous acts of resistance triggered by news of a similar action in another city.

While the strike did not last long, its legacy was profound. It demonstrated that working class people could mobilize with tremendous power and it disseminated socialist ideas about the nature of capitalism in the United States.

The Great War General Strike

The end of World War I saw working people face a sharp reversal in wage gains and an explosive rise in labour conflict. This sparked the first general strike of the 20th century.

On Bloody Saturday, riots between pro- and anti-strike veterans erupted during a parade. Two strikers were killed and many others injured. Police and company-hired thugs beat up picketers. Thousands of black workers, who couldn’t join unions because of racial prejudice, were brought in as strikebreakers.

The striking unions wanted to win the support of returned soldiers, who were highly respected for their service and viewed as moral role models. They could sway public opinion with their moral authority. To this end, they tried to gain the undivided support of the Great War Veterans’ Association (GWVA). When the GWVA refused, Captain F.G. Thompson formed his own anti-strike organization, the Loyalist Returned Soldiers’ Association. Both sides lost the battle, and the general strike was crushed.

Return to the home screen

Connecting Fans Worldwide: Discover the Thrill of ‘nba중계’

Basketball, with its high-flying athletes and buzzer-beating shots, has held the world in its grasp for many decades. The National Basketball Association, better known as the NBA, is home to this sport’s elites, offering a thrilling spectator experience with its regular broadcasts, or as some may refer to, the ‘nba중계’.

The NBA is an international sensation, with individuals from across the globe tuning in for every dunk, every defensive stop, and every game-winning shot. Broadcasts of these games, known in Korea as ‘nba중계’, gives fans near and far the opportunity to be part of the action, the thrill, and the sheer beauty of the game, no matter where they are.

The NBA broadcasts are a way for people to connect, to feel the energy of the stadium, and to witness the pinnacle of basketball performance. Each ‘nba중계’ brings fans closer to the court, offers them a chance to experience the intensity of the competition, and makes them an integral part of the global basketball fraternity.

In essence, the ‘nba중계’ is more than a simple transmission of a game; it’s an avenue of unity, a conduit of shared passion, and a vessel carrying the spirit of competition and sportsmanship. It bridges geographical barriers, time differences, and cultural distinctions, all while delivering an exceptional NBA adventure.

Now, let us turn to address some questions frequently asked concerning the ‘nba중계’.

1. FAQ: Where can I watch the NBA broadcasts or ‘nba중계’?
Answer: NBA games are broadcasted worldwide on various platforms like cable television, online streaming services, and even on the NBA’s official website.

2. FAQ: What is the schedule for ‘nba중계’?
Answer: The NBA schedule can be found on the official NBA website or other sports news platforms. It varies based on different time zones.

3. FAQ: Can I watch the ‘nba중계’ on my smartphone?
Answer: Certainly, many platforms that air NBA games have mobile-friendly versions or dedicated apps where you can enjoy the game on your mobile device.

4. FAQ: Are the ‘nba중계’ broadcasts available in languages other than English?
Answer: Yes, NBA broadcasts cater to a global audience and are, therefore, available in numerous languages.

5. FAQ: Can I watch the ‘nba중계’ if I’m not in the United States?
Answer: Absolutely, NBA games are broadcasted globally. However, availability may depend on your region’s specific broadcast rights.

In conclusion, the ‘nba중계’ serves as a link tethering millions of fans to the exciting world of basketball, sustaining the universal language of sport and fostering a global NBA community. So gear up, tune in, and let the spirit of the NBA take over!
Check out the best experience of watching NBA matches live on nba중계.…